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  • 中美高中教育差異有何不同?

    編輯:haiqiang 來源:三聯生活周刊
    發布時間:2016/08/18 14718次瀏覽

    美國精英教育的終極目標是培養未來能夠影響世界并推動人類進步的社會卓越貢獻者。此話多數中國人以為很虛,但這卻是美國精英家庭孩子從小耳濡目染的價值追求。兩種不同的價值觀,會塑造出孩子完全不同的人生角色:一種是精致的利己主義者,另一種則是以天下為己任的社會卓越貢獻者。

    中國富裕家庭最早看到了兩種命運的不同,搶占先機到美國找“名師”變“高徒”,從世界至高點俯視全球。美國的多元文化,能夠讓孩子們更好地理解世界多樣性,尋找到更豐富的生命意義。精英圈子的“發小”情誼,也是人生的寶貴財富。而這些價值,也正是吸引高凈值家庭送孩子低齡留學美國的根源。

    當出國留學變成潮流時,競爭態勢自然水漲船高,錄取條件也日益嚴苛。為了避開申高(8申9、9申9)的慘烈競爭,也為了讓孩子盡早適應美國校園文化,達到良好融入的目的,在小學畢業后就送孩子赴美留學(6申6、6申7)的現象已蔚然成風。

    硬幣都有正反兩面:年齡小、可塑性強固然是優勢,但隨著中國小留學生問題層出不窮,“硬幣的反面”逐步被美國精英學校和中國家長群體體認。美國學校要挑選的人,是能夠在異域文化中保持心理健康、在教師指導下善于自省并完善人格、在學術上與美國教育體系能夠接軌的孩子。但是,由于中美兩國的不同教育標準,導致中國孩子若無充分的準備和持久的訓練,普遍不可能達到美國小學畢業生的認知能力和語言水平,更會導致美國精英中學離他們漸行漸遠。

    中美教育標準有哪些顯著不同?

    1、“傳授知識”VS“啟發智慧”

    中國人認為孩子天生就是一張白紙,只有在老師的教授下才能獲得知識并掌握技能;而美國人認為,每個孩子天生就具備卓越的才華,老師的作用只是通過啟發將孩子的智慧引導出來。

    因此,中國的教育關注學生具體“學到”什么,學習的內容重在對“外部世界”的認知,而對自我認知和人際世界的認知,基本空白;而美國的教育更在意學生在學習過程中是否真的“會學”?除了認識“外部世界”,更要求孩子借由認識外部世界去更好的認知人際世界和自我內心世界。這種教育本源認知上的不同,造成了中美在教育標準、教育方法、教育策略乃至教育結果上的根本不同。而且,習慣于外部驅動的中國學生和習慣于內部驅動的美國學生相比,缺乏美國精英學校極為重視的遵紀并自律、好奇心、創新能力、積極主動和獨立精神。

    2、“知識記憶” VS“批判思維”

    中國的教育以知識記憶為主,而美國的教育更關注在學習過程中培養孩子的批判性和創造性思維進而去進行研究型學習:即要求學生整合閱讀能力、分析能力、合作能力于一體去完成項目制學習研究。美國學校因此對小學階段思考力和研究力近乎空白的中國留學生有著巨大的挑戰!

    側重知識記憶的中國教育的重點——記憶、理解和應用與側重思維培養的美國教育標準——分析、綜合、評價相比,在思考能力、思維模式上有很大的劣勢。長期在“死記硬背”教育環境中的孩子,又獨自在異域文化的環境下,想要短期內完成思維模式的轉變躍升,可以想象到是多么艱難,甚至可能會適得其反。

    中美教育,不僅是教育理念的不同,更是在具體標準上有巨大差異。與美國的同齡人相比,中國的小學生存在哪些“先天性”差距,導致美國學校遠離中國學生?

    閱讀能力對比

    1、閱讀的廣度和深度差距巨大,無論是質的要求還是量的要求,都是數量級的差別。

    按CCSS全美教學標準要求,美國小學畢業生至少需要閱讀1404本課外讀物,閱讀量占到全部K12年級閱讀量的77.6%,且涉及故事、詩歌、戲劇、信息類等13種文體。在閱讀深度上,美國要求小學畢業生不僅能夠對文章細節與主旨進行精準理解,還要求對文章結構與內在邏輯進行嚴密分析!

    反觀中國小學5-6年級的語文教學大綱,不僅對課外閱讀量要求低(五年制閱讀總量不少于100萬字即可),而且在閱讀深度上只要求做到“初步理解”句、段、篇之間的聯系和分析概括文章主旨即可。中國對孩子閱讀基本功的教育可謂具有“先天缺陷”!

    2、閱讀技能、閱讀策略及落實手法也差距極大

    中國小學階段對閱讀能力的要求是記憶、理解和應用,而美國小學生在畢業時已經能夠對閱讀材料進行一定的分析綜合與評價。例如通過討論式閱讀,來增強對人際世界的認知和社交能力;通過閱讀進行反思,提高自我認知能力等。因此,進入初中后,以分析、綜合、評價為主的閱讀作為最基本的能力,老師默認大家都會,沒人會專門再去教。中國的低齡留學生,如果不事先將閱讀“童子功”補足,不僅難以進入美國精英初中,即便僥幸進入也難以在美國教育體系中成為佼佼者。

    閱讀作為兩個輸入項之一,中美之間的巨大差異,導致寫作方面的差距也是驚人:

    寫作能力對比

    1、寫作題材的數量和寫作難度存在量級差距

    與美國小學生要寫出觀點鮮明、邏輯嚴謹、結構清晰的全文體(記敘文、說明文和議論文)才算達標的寫作要求相比,中國小學生的寫作要求是寫出有中心思想、有條理、有真情實感的簡單記敘文!

    從小學開始,美國的孩子就已經學會了“老師布置課題—學生分組分解課題—分頭研究子課題—自行閱讀延展材料和參考教材—小組開會總結提煉觀點—修正原始課題和觀點—補充材料—撰寫報告—修正報告—提交作業”的研究性寫作。而中國的小學生從小極度缺乏這種運用批判性和創造性思維去進行研究性寫作的機會,還只停留在對觀察的事物進行描述的淺層思維寫作上!這樣的孩子如果沒有接受系統性訓練,幾乎不可能在美國初中拔得頭籌!

    2、寫作時長與耐力的差距

    美國小學生既能快速完成短時間基礎性寫作,也會根據特定寫作任務進行長時間(一周或一月)大論文寫作。而中國的小學生只具備基本寫作能力,根本不被要求長時間寫作和研究性寫作!

    這種要求上的差別導致學生的思維方式、寫作能力和寫作耐力存在巨大差距。而大項目寫作,是美國初高中越來越要求的教學重點,中國的孩子若沒有在這個方面打下堅實基礎,去了美國面對要求用流暢、正規甚至嚴謹又優美的語句去完成Essay作業,不啻于一場噩夢!為什么在美國一些地方出現“代寫作業”的荒唐服務,與中國學生低下的寫作能力也有一定的關系!

    聽說能力對比

    中國小學生的聽說能力只局限在“信息接收——關鍵信息復述”的單點思維上,無法對所聽到的內容進行概括總結并在邏輯思辨后用自己的觀點進行“輸出”。這恰恰是美國初中所要求的重點能力!

    試想,這樣的中國孩子在美國以討論與觀點表述為主的課堂學習中,怎能不成為“沉默的隱形人”(silent student)呢?

    總之,中美教育標準的巨大差異,導致同為小學畢業生的中國孩子和美國同齡人在學術與社交能力上存在較大的差距!來自基礎教育的盲點,是造成中國留學生在海外學習和發展過程中持續發生系統性誤差的根源!而且出去留學的時間越晚,差距越大!這也是為什么聰明勤奮肯吃苦的中國孩子來到美國后,不僅在世界一流大學很少有人能夠出類拔萃,而且在國際高科技領域中也罕有卓越成就的原因之一。

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