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  • SAT考試新變革。

    編輯:zhushixi 來源:美國高中留學
    發布時間:2017/01/17 5103次瀏覽

    自從一九二六年推出針對留學生的SAT考試,到現在共做了9次不同形式的變動,而這次的變動卻是最具歷史性的,改動了很多,究竟有怎樣的改變呢?下面來為大家介紹一下。

    1、基本形式的變化

    (1)改革后的SAT總分重回1600分,其中數學800分,閱讀和語法共800分,寫作變為選考,單獨判分。

    (2)客觀選擇題的選項從五個變成四個。

    (3)改革前的SAT客觀題,考生不選的題目得零分,而選錯的題目扣0.25分,改革后的SAT考生不選的題目得零分,而選錯的題目不再倒扣分。

    2、詞匯的變化

    (1)改革前后每套題目詞匯量:

    通過對所有改革前的SAT真題以及改革后的SAT真題詞匯的統計分析,新SAT的每套題目的詞匯總量與改革前的SAT相比,總詞匯量略有增長:新SAT官方指南的四套題的單詞數分別是:14092,15015,15561,14459。而改革前的SAT每套題目的單詞數是13000-14000。

    (2)改革前后每套題目首現單詞量:

    新SAT每套題目的首現單詞數量與改革前的SAT相比,新SAT略有減少:新SAT四套題的首現單詞數分別是:2374,2527,2590,2430;而改革前的SAT每套題目的首現單詞數一般為2600左右。這可能與不考填空有關系。

    (3)改革前后SAT閱讀、語法的單詞范圍:

    猴哥統計了改革前SAT所有真題的單詞(除去填空單詞),一共大約是88萬個,然后把這些單詞與新SAT的四套題目對照,發現新SAT的單詞幾乎都在這個范圍內,所以這個就是新SAT的單詞范圍。一般的SAT詞匯書中,往往還包含了改革前的SAT填空單詞,而改革前的SAT的填空單詞,大部分是不出現在新SAT的題目中的。所以如果背誦這些詞匯書,會多背了新SAT不考的填空單詞,而這些填空單詞往往是難詞。

    ul1242-6207_副本.jpg

    3、數學的變化

    (1)數學題干變長,讀題難度加大。

    (2)分可以使用計算器和不能使用計算器兩部分。改革前的SAT考試數學部分,54道題目均允許考生使用計算器,而改革后的SAT數學部分,38道題目的部分允許考生使用計算器,20道題目的部分不允許考生使用計算器。

    (3)題目由原來的54個增加到現在的58個,多增加了4個填空題。增加的題型有:復數、三角函數、多項式函數、有理式函數(分式)、函數應用及函數表達式中參數含義、統計分析的圖像應用題。代數和函數知識點變化不大,但難度提升,題目更為靈活。都是在改革前的SAT數學考題基礎上增加了難度。

    (4)與上述代數函數統計分析題目增加對應的是兩類題目的大量減少:數和運算極大減少,在此次放出來的題目中幾乎未見;平面幾何題目大量減少,難度有所增加。

    由此可見,SAT考試將由原來的純數學的考察向應用分析轉移,著重考察學生閱讀,分析,應用的能力,從而鍛煉學生分析實際問題,解決實際問題的水平。

    應對策略:知識點層面將知識內容增加到SATSubjectTestMathLevel1的難度,以應對復數,三角函數,多項式函數,和有理式函數的知識漏洞。增加統計圖表描述和分析的訓練,平時閱讀一些帶圖表的文章,增強閱讀和圖表分析能力。增強函數模型類題目的訓練,可以嘗試閱讀一些函數模型的科普讀物和文章。

    4、語法的變化

    (1)所有語法客觀題都被嵌入文章

    以IP題目的出題方式,以一篇文章為載體,進行出題。閱讀難度增加,要求學生閱讀速度加快。

    (2)語法文章難度更高

    改革后的SAT的語法部分,知識點層面主要集中在詞(words)、標點(punctuation)和邏輯(logic)3大塊,與改革前的SAT考點相一致:

    a)words層面的考查:為改革前SAT-ISE部分知識點的考查。

    b)Punctuation層面的考查:為改革前SAT-IS部分知識點的考查。

    c)邏輯層面的考查:為改革前SAT-IP部分知識點的考查。

    (3)新增圖表與文字匹配題

    這種類型的題考察文章和圖表相互轉化的能力。改革前后文章考題內容選材來源基本相似,均考察小說,科技,人文,社會等內容,圖表題一般會出現在科學類或統計類文章中。

    針對以上特征,改革后SAT語法部分的考查,知識點仍是改革前SAT考查的語法點,只是考查的載體變了而已,但同時,也表明了collegeboard對于學生閱讀理解能力要求的提升,也希望學生可以將語法知識學以致用,所以,對于語法的學習的做有效的辦法,就是在掌握好語法知識的基礎上,拓展課外閱讀,培養語感,雙管齊下,才能無往而不勝。

    5、閱讀的變化

    (1)改革前和改革后的SAT閱讀均考察的閱讀題型有:主旨,細節,詞匯,態度,推斷,修辭功能和結構,一般是段落或句子的修辭功能結構,諸如此類的常規題型。目前暫時沒有涉及修辭手法的考題。

    (2)改革后的SAT閱讀部分,單詞填空題取消。

    (3)改革后的SAT閱讀部分去掉了短篇閱讀。改革后的SAT閱讀部分取消了單短和雙短這兩種文章閱讀題。但從后文閱讀內容中看出,新題對于詞匯量還是保持了較高要求。

    (4)改革后的SAT閱讀部分增加考生對對美國歷史與政府的考察內容,閱讀部分更加重視科學和歷史等主題。

    (5)改革后的SAT閱讀部分新增例證分析題。要求考生讀懂更多信息才能做對題目,有時候一道題做不對會“連坐”下一道題,強調評估邏輯的有效性。

    (6)改革后的SAT閱讀部分4篇單長閱讀中2篇與改革前的SAT閱讀相似,常規題目設置。2篇為新題加入的閱讀帶數據分析材料,此類文章的題干引入部分會明確指出文章帶有補充材料(supplementarymaterial),若在題干引入部分看到以上單詞即做好心理準備,后文帶有數據分析。雙長文章出題與改革前雷同。

    (7)改革后的SAT閱讀部分新增圖表信息題,考察學生整合信息的能力,要求書面文字轉化為圖表。題型設置對比:主要區別于兩類:第一類即證據支持題,幾乎每篇文章都會考察一到兩個。例如第一套第一篇小說的第5題是如何支持第4題的,第二篇送禮物的文章的第14題是如何支持第13題的。考察考生對于文章中論點論據的分析能力,可能會有一定難度。第二類即圖表題,需要考生圖文結合或者進行數據分析,凡是題干導入部分說到補充材料(supplementarymaterial)的單長文章,一般都會在文章的

    最后兩三個題目出一兩個甚至三個圖表題,圖表形式包括柱狀圖,線條圖,餅狀圖以及表格圖等。圖表題又可以進一步細化為:

    a)圖表細節題即答案選項是某百分比數據或某數字區間,例如第二套第二篇經濟學文章的第20題;

    b)圖表主旨題即圖表分析后與原文的某觀點相關,呈支持或反對的關系。此類考題難度較大,一方面需要考生讀懂文章觀點,一方面需要分析數據,建立與文章觀點之間的聯系。

    c)雙長文章考題設置大同小異,繼續沿用改革前模式,考察單文章題目以外的文章關聯題,求同求異求關系等。新增考題就是雙長文章也考證據支持題。

    (8)內容選材對比

    改革前后的閱讀考題文章內容選材來源基本相似,均考察小說,科技,人文,社會等方面內容,圖表題一般會出現在科學類或統計類文章中,例如第一套第二篇禮物的文章,第三篇DNA的科學文章,還有一篇經濟學,一篇海水波浪的文章配有圖表題。

    應對策略:單詞背誦仍舊是英語類考試的重中之重。不管是否有專門考察生僻單詞的填空題的存在,考生們都應該重視詞匯積累的基本能力。此外,考生的閱讀需廣泛涉獵。新題更加注重強化考生對于學術文章以及學術數據的閱讀分析能力,所以,一定要重點精讀學術類文章。廣泛涉獵科學類,人文社科等方面知識內容。最后是依靠舊題,適應新題。大家在備考新SAT過程中不要否定了目前的SAT學習材料,現行的歷年真題仍舊是大家備考新SAT有效的練習資料。

    6、作文的變化

    (1)改革后的寫作部分采取單獨算分的形式,且為選考。但選考不是不考,美國好的大學會根據你12猴哥新SAT詞頻藍寶書的作文分數考察學生的邏輯思辨能力和寫作能力。

    (2)改革前的SAT寫作部分為考試的第一個部分,改革后的SAT寫作部分變成最后部分。

    (3)作文考試時間由25分鐘變成50分鐘。

    (4)作文的考察形式由議論文變為分析性寫作。分析性寫作是中國學生最缺少的素質,寫作不是一蹴而就的事情,建議學生要長期練習。從官方發布的練習題看,寫作部分的考生被要求在50分鐘內閱讀一篇700字左右的文章,并用英文描述文章是如何:

    (a)用證據來論證自己的觀點

    (b)用論證方法來組織自己的觀點和證據

    (c)從文體形式和論證元素方面來增強文章的說服力

    CollegeBoard放出來的4套新SAT練習題寫作中,第一套練習中需要考生閱讀并寫作的文章選自美國總統JimmyCarter的文章,文章呼吁大家保護野生環境;第二套選自馬丁路德金的演講,關于維護和平;第三套選自ElianaDockterman在2013年發表的文章,關于學生使用科技產品的利弊;第四套選自PaulBogard在2012年發表的文章,文章強調來“黑暗”對于生活的重要性。

    從這4套練習題能看出,寫作部分的文章難度不大,文章屬議論文范疇,作者的觀點比較清晰。考生需要做的是明確作者的觀點,并解析作者是如何證明自己的觀點的,文章結構、論證方法以及語言上有哪些特點。這一能力無疑是為了讓考生為大學寫論文打下基礎。

    應對策略新SAT的寫作部分難度其實是降低了,考生再也不用為了表達自己的觀點去背誦各種各樣的例子。要想應對新SAT寫作,建議考生平時擴大閱讀量,多讀一些名人演講及雜志上的文章,最重要的是,看一些文學批評的文章,培養自己的邏輯批判性思維,掌握文學評論的寫作語言,從多個角度去評論一篇文章。

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